Christian apologists as early as St. Augustine have appealed to Christ's words in Luke 14:23-'Go out into the highways and hedges and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled'-as a mandate for forcible conversion. In 1685, Protestant philosopher and critic Pierre Bayle wrote a compelling and thorough critique of this belief, contending that all coercion in religious matters is morally untenable as being inconsistent with reason. His Philosophical Commentary
establishes the case against this supposed literal interpretation of Luke 14:23, arguing that reason must govern all interpretations of Scripture. According to Bayle, the erroneous conscience has the same rights as the enlightened one, his central tenet being a doctrine of mutual toleration grounded in a theory of the morality of conscience-namely, that all God requires is that people act on what seems to them to be the truth. Though not as well known as John Locke's Letter Concerning Toleration
, Bayle's Commentary
(which preceded Locke's Letter
) is more comprehensive and substantially deeper-greatly influencing the likes of Diderot, Hume, and other Enlightenment thinkers. This edition is a reprint of the 1708 English translation, checked against the French original and corrected with an introduction and annotations designed to make it more accessible for the modern reader.
An Eighth Day View:
The topics of church and state, religious toleration, the legal enforcement of religious practices, and religiously motivated violence on the part of individuals have once again become burning issues. Pierre Bayle's "Philosophical Commentary" was a major attempt to deal with very similar problems three centuries ago. His argument is that if the orthodox have the right and duty to persecute, then every sect will persecute, since every sect considers itself orthodox. The result will be mutual slaughter, something God cannot have intended.
"The Philosophical Commentary" takes its starting point from the words attributed to Jesus Christ in Luke 14:23, "And the lord said unto the servant, Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be full." Bayle contends that the word compel cannot mean "force." From this perspective, he constructs his doctrine of toleration based on the singular importance of conscience. His point is not that coercion usually is ineffective in matters of faith but that, even when effective, it is wrong because it ignores the indispensability of the free conscience.
Bayle's book was translated into English in 1708. The Liberty Fund edition reprints that translation, carefully checked against the French and corrected, with an introduction and annotations designed to make Bayle's arguments accessible to the twenty-first-century reader.
Pierre Bayle (1647-1706), Protestant philosopher and critic, was born in France. In 1675 he became professor of philosophy at Sedan until forced into exile in Rotterdam in 1681, where he published works on religion with a liberal and tolerant tendency. He was dismissed from his position at the Huguenot refugees academy in 1693 following the accusation that he was an agent of France and an enemy of Protestantism. In 1696 he completed his major work, the "Dictionnaire historique et critique."
John Kilcullen is a Senior Research Fellow in Humanities at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia.
Chandran Kukathas is Chair in Political Theory atThe London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London.
Knud Haakonssen is Professor of Intellectual History and Director of the Centre for Intellectual History at the University of Sussex, England.